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Disorders of the Reproductive Systems

The reproductive system is essential to the continuation of the human race. Proper functioning is necessary for optimal physical and psychosocial well being. This post will explore two reproductive disorders, including similarities and differences and the impact of behavior on the conditions. Phimosis is a disorder of the male reproductive system that prevents retraction of the foreskin over the glans penis. It is a non-issue in males under the age of three, as the glans and foreskin are one under normal physiological conditions (Huether & McCance, 2017). After age three, the foreskin begins to separate from the glans penis naturally. Phimosis can happen at any age in uncircumcised males. It often occurs as a result of chronic infection, but treatment is unnecessary unless balanitis or posthitis occur. Common symptoms include tenderness, edema, erythema, or purulent discharge. If the condition is pathological, treatment includes circumcision or a preputioplasty which widens the hole for the glans to pass through properly preserving the foreskin (McPhee & McKay, 2019).Paraphimosis is a disorder of the male reproductive system where the foreskin becomes trapped behind the corona of the glans. This condition is considered a urologic emergency and requires rapid treatment. If left untreated, the glans becomes strangulated, leading to vascular compromise, edema, and necrosis (Bragg & Leslie, 2019). Paraphimosis often occurs when retracting the foreskin for cleaning, physical examination, or placement of a catheter. Common symptoms include erythema, swelling, and pain. Treatment for uncomplicated paraphimosis includes manual reduction using a small amount of lubricant and moderate pressure to advanced the foreskin back over the glans. Complicated paraphimosis requires analgesia and surgical incision to correct.

Similarities and Differences

One similarity between the two disorders is the involvement of the foreskin. In one condition, the foreskin does not retract, and in the other, it does not return to cover the glans penis. One difference is that paraphimosis is most common in adolescents, while phimosis can happen at any age. Also, paraphimosis can occur in circumcised males too if there is enough skin present after a circumcision.


Cleanliness is essential in the prevention of phimosis. Regular hygiene prevents many cases of this condition. Self-inflicted injuries are a significant cause for paraphimosis. However, merely retracting the foreskin can trigger the problem


Bragg, B. N., & Leslie, S. W. (2019). Paraphimosis. In StatPearls. Retrieved from          /NBK448067/ Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.McPhee, A. S., & McKay, A. C. (2019). Phimosis. In StatPearls. Retrieved from        /NBK448067/

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